Main Street of Miskolc at the turn of
the 20th century
Miskolc has been an inhabited area from ancient times, it has been one of the oldest inhabited areas of Hungary and Europe. The first known inhabitants were the Gothes, however the conquering Hungarians found here inhabitants with mixed ethic units in this region, who lived in the neighbourhood of Sötétkapu, on the side of Papszer and the surroundings of Tetemvár. Before the conquest, an earthwork was situated on the site of today’s the Diósgyőr Castle.

Diósgyőr Castle
King Lajos the Great raised Miskolc to city rank in 1365. It was declared to market-town with the right to elect a judge and with the right of testamentary. Also the neighbouring Diósgyőr Castle was reconstructed at that time. Several significant buildings of Miskolc originate from the 18th and 19th centuries. They include the town hall, the new county hall (from about 1820), the theatre (the first stone theatre in the country’s current territory), numerous schools and churches. However these years gave not only developments to Miskolc, in 1873 cholera epidemic broke out and in 1878 a huge flood devastated the town. The First World War did not directly affect Miskolc.

Miskolc-Tapolca, Cave Bath
After Hungary was cut into pieces in Trianon Miskolc took over the role of regional centre from Kosice. This fact and the approaching Second World War made Miskolc the most important heavy-industrial centre of Hungary. After the Second World War Diósgyőr, Hejőcsaba, Görömböly, Szirma and Hámor were connected to Miskolc. In 1949 the Mining Academy, which previously had moved from Selmecbánya to Sopron, was brought to Miskolc as Technical University of Heavy Industry. In the following decades Miskolc continued its perpetual rivalry with Debrecen and won the title of the second largest town, and in the years of 1980s its population was more than 200 000.

Lookout Tower of Avas
The years of 1990s brought in the decline of heavy industry. The population of Miskolc began to decrease; Debrecen took over its place and became the second largest town of the country. From the years of 2000s continuous development can be observed in Miskolc, and the myth of steel city begins to transform, culture and tourism come to the foreground. Its main sights are the Lookout Tower of Avas, the National Theatre, the Diósgyőr Castle, the Cave Bath in Miskolc-Tapolca, and Palace Hotel in Lillafüred and last but not least the Orthodox church with its muzeum.